Cronium 376 BC (C&C Ancients)

Historical Background: In 410 BC, Carthage invaded Greek Sicily, ending seventy years of peace. In the turmoil surrounding the Punic invasion, Dionysius I was able to establish a tyranny in Syracuse in 405. Dionysius initiated a series of wars against Carthage and neighboring Greek cities. In 377 Dionysius won a crushing victory at Cabala, capturing 5,000 men and killing over 10,000, including the Carthaginian general Mago. His son, Himilco, rebuilt the Punic army and sought a re-match at Cronium in 376 with his army of over 30,000 foot and 4000 horse. Dionysius was confident that his army, of about the same size, would easily defeat this Punic army a second time. Dionysius commanded his Greek mercenaries in the center, his brother Leptines led the Syracusans on the right, while the left was held by allied Greeks and Gauls. Himilco formed his center with Libyan levies, placing heavier Greek and barbarian mercenaries on the wings. Dionysius drove back the Punic center, but Leptines was killed during his assault, and the Syracusan right wing buckled. Himilco's mercenaries also broke the Greek left. As both wings collapsed, the Syracusan center was enveloped and a great slaughter commenced. Himilco had won an unexpected victory, avenged his father’s death and forced Dionysius to sue for peace. Cronium was the greatest open field Punic victory in three centuries of combat with Syracuse.

Himilco orders his cavalry to charge both Syracusan flanks, routing the left while inflicting moderate damage on the right. (Carthage 2, Syracuse 0)

The cavalry of the Syracusan right under Leptines counter attacks, inflicting some damage. On the Syracusan left, the Carthaginian cavalry is repelled and a standoff ensues. (Carthage 2, Syracuse 0)

The Carthaginian left destroys almost all that was left of Leptines cavalry before advancing on the Syracusan right. (Carthage 3, Syracuse 0)

Himilco brings up more troops on his left while the Syracusans regroup. (Carthage 3, Syracuse 0)

The Syracusan right under Leptines weathers an attack, before countering with the help of Dionysius' center of heavy troops. The Carthaginian left is scattered, but not without inflicting many casualties among the Syracusan hoplites. (Carthage 5, Syracuse 3)

Himilco moves up the Carthaginian center, while Leptines and the Syracusian right continue their push, but fail to kill the Carthaginian general opposing them. (Carthage 5, Syracuse 4)

The Carthaginian center under Himilco manages to drive a wedge between Dionysius and Leptines, seperating the Syracusan center from the right. Meanwhile, Dionysius' heavy hoplites manage to thin out the Carthaginian center, while the Syracusan left finally moves up to engage. (Carthage 6, Syracuse 5)

Himilco goes for the kill and the Carthaginian centers destroys Dionysius' heavy hoplites, forcing him to withdraw with the remnants of his forces. (Carthage 7, Syracuse 5)



Sword of Rome 

Setup from top to bottom: the grey non player Transalpine Gauls, the blue Gauls, the yellow Etruscans, the red Romans, the orange no player Volscii, the green Samnites, in light blue the Greeks and in purple the Carthaginians. In the South of Italy there are also two tribes in brown, the Lucanians and the Bruttians.

End of turn 1: Rome allies herself with the Etruscans and the Samnites, while the Gauls also ally themselves with the Etruscans. The Gauls raze the Roman city of Narnia but are themselves beset almost immediately by the Transalpine Gauls who want some of their plunder. A battle ensues between the two with the Gauls victorious but also the only ones to lose any significant amount of men. Meanwhile, in central Italy the Volscii besiege Capua while their home city of Antium is likewise besieged by the Romans. In Sicily, the Carthaginians take Messana causing the Greeks to sign a treaty with them for the meanwhile. Unfortunately for Carthage, this victory is marred by a rebellion of their mercenaries in Africa.

End of turn 2: The Etruscans don't renew their alliance with the Gauls, while the Romans keep their alliance. The Transalpine Gauls completely destroy the Gallic army that had previously attacked them. It is then the Etruscans and Samnite strike, each destroying another Gallic army. The remaining men from the battle with the Samnites die from attrition while trying to bring back a newly Etruscan area to their control. In central Italy, the Romans continue the siege of Antium and the Volsci, now depleted by losses due to attrition, abandon the siege of Capua and return to lift the siege of their city. The battle is closely fought, but the Romans emerge victorious and the Volscii capitulate. In Sicily, the Greeks, having built up a formidable force and seeing the Carthaginians preoccupied with rebelling mercenaries, decide not to renew their treaty. Instead they go on the offensive driving out the Carthaginians from Messana, Hamilcar is crucified for his failure to keep the city. The Greek then press on to Panormus, where a much smaller Carthaginian force succeeds in wiping out two thirds of the much bigger Greek army, which withdraws to Messana in shame. The Greeks ally themselves with the Samnites to protect their possessions in Italy.

End of turn 3: The Transalpine Gauls still seeking plunder avoid the large Etruscan army in the North and conquer Pisae. The Etruscans then fall back to mercilessly crush those Transalpine Gauls, liberating Pisae. Meanwhile, the Gauls take advantage of that battle to plunder the Northern conquests of the Transalpine Gauls. Unfortunately, while raiding, Brennus and his small band are destroyed. The Etruscans and the Samnites occupy the last major sites of the Gauls, eliminating any further threat. In central Italy, Rome decides to look to the South, conquering Neapolis and Tarentum from the Greeks. Tarentum had been left open when the Greeks brought almost all of their troops to Sicily. The Carthaginians attempt to stop the gathering of this large army in Messena, but are soundly defeated. The Greeks then pursue them to Panormus and then to Lilybaeum where they hole up in the city which falls after some time, giving the Greeks mastery of Sicily, if not yet complete control. As the dominance of the Etruscans and Samnites becomes closer to reality, the Romans begin questioning their alliance. A fierce debate rages on the senate, with some pushing for an attack on the nearly defenseless Samnite lands. In the end, Rome decides to remain true to its allies and no attack is made. 

Thus, in the end, the Etruscan and Samnite emerge as the new major powers, with Rome being second. Carthage despite its losses is third because the Greeks, for all their victories in Sicily, have been almost pushed out of Italy. In the wake of this contest, nothing remains of the Gauls in Italy save for stories to scare little children.




Akragas 406 BC (C&C Ancients)

Historical Background: The Carthaginians on their third invasion of Sicily laid siege to the city of Akragas. The Syracusans under the command of general Daphnaeus marched to Akragas' aid. A long battle outside the walls followed with the Syracusans winning the day, but the city defenders failed to sally out and join the fight. Although Hamilco's Carthaginians suffered heavily what remained fled back to their camp to join Hamilco's second army. Daphnaeus did not make a second attack and withdrew his army after the Carthaginian navy cut off his supplies. The city fell eight months later without a fight.

Hamilco attacks on both flanks with his heavy chariots and light cavalry. They inflict some casualties among the Syracusan light troops, but are driven off with one unit of heavy chariots completely destroyed. (Syracuse 1, Carthage 0)

The Carthaginians advance their whole line but are met by a fierce charge from Daphnaeus in the center with his heavy infantry. The auxilia troops around Hamilco are quickly destroyed, but his medium infantry heroically takes on two units of heavy infantry leaving all three battered. Dionysius pushes on the right with his medium cavalry. (Syracuse 2, Carthage 0)

The Carthaginian center collapses with the destruction of another auxilia unit and the medium infantry. Daphnaeus tightens his center to compensate for the loss of a unit of heavy infantry. (Syracuse 4, Carthage 1)

While Hamilco retreats from the center with the light cavalry from the left wing, the Syracusans continue to push despite the lost of another unit of heavy infantry. Dionysius join Daphnaeus in the center. The auxilia of the former destroys a unit of Carthaginian light infantry, sealing a victory for Syracuse. (Syracuse 5, Carthage 2)



When Alexander the Great died in 323 BC, he left no clear heir to the immense empire he had conquered. It was not long after his death that the Macedonian generals began to war among themselves over who would be the regent or successor to Alexander’s empire. By 305 BC they had given up on succession and began to carve out their own kingdoms. Successors is a four-player game based on those wars.

(Black) Antipater with Lysimachus
(Blue) Craterus with Leonnatus
(Yellow) Ptolemey with Antigonus
(Red) Perdiccas with Peithon
(Green) Rebels and independants

Turn 1 (323 - 320 BC): Macedonia is immediately hit by the Dardani from the West, who then go on to pillage Thrace before finally being defeated. Antipater (black) then turns his eye on the Greeks who have declared themselves independent following Alexander's death. Craterus and Leonnatus (blue) dislodge Antigonus (yellow), branded a usurper, from Phrygia, while adding Cappadocia to the empire and thus establishing a strong influence over Asia Minor. Antigonus flees to Halicarnassus to secure the city's fleet before moving on to Crete. Ptolemy (yellow) moves up the Levant securing it and the Phoenician fleet. Meanwhile, in the East, Perdiccas (Red) rushes to Damascus to grab Heracles, the bastard son of Alexander, which he brings back to Babylon for safekeeping with Alexander's baby son. Perdiccas then brings Mesopotamia under his influence. Meanwhile, Peithon (red) sacks the treasury of Ecbatana before moving to secure the Easternmost provinces of Persis and Susiana. Not long after he leaves, Media is brought to turmoil with the arrival of twenty three thousand Greek colonists heading back home.

Turn 2 (319-316 BC): With Alexander's lavish funeral procession ready to depart Babylon with Perdiccas (red), the other generals prepare to block his route to Pella, lest he accrues enough legitimacy to be, without doubt, Alexander's successor. Craterus and Leonnatus (blue) prepare to block the way through Anatolia, while Antipater (black) finishes the reconquest of Greece, bringing the Athenian fleet under his control. With an uncertain path to Pella, Perdiccas and Peithon (red) instead decide to square off with Ptolemey (yellow) in Syria, but fail to engage before the silver shields flock to the latter and a stalemate ensues. Peithon attempts a bold attack near Damascus but is decidedly beaten and loses his mercenaries, the bulk of his army. Meanwhile, Antigonus (yellow) finishes the conquest of Crete before adding Rhodes and Cyprus to Ptolemey's dominion and a firm control of the sea. He then moves on to Pamphylia and Lydia. With no funeral procession forthcoming, Craterus (blue) moves to Syria with unclear intentions, while Leonnatus (blue) adds Lydia and Caria (Halicarnassus) to their dominion. In the East, Eumenes joins Perdiccas' camp (red) and lead the funeral procession with the two heirs into Media to the city of Ecbatana, where Alexander is buried. A third heir, Philip III, half brother of Alexander, is brought to Memphis by Ptolemey's men (yellow) for his security. These years close with the death of Antipater (black) who is replaceed by Polyperchon and with Demetrius joining his father Antigonus (yellow).

Turn 3 (315-311 BC): To fight the growing influence of Ptolemey (yellow), Perdiccas (red) enlisted the help of Polyperchon (black). While Perdiccas would fight Ptolemey in Phoenicia to deprive him of a fleet, Polyperchon would strike at Rhodes. The plan succeeded all too well, with Ptolemey retreating to Cyprus and his fleet completely destroyed by Polyperchon. With the threat of Ptolemey (yellow)thwarted, Craterus (blue) decided to strike into Syria to curb Perdiccas' (red) influence. Craterus pursued Peithon (red) throughout Syria but was ambushed in the desert when Perdiccas joined the latter to form a massive army. Craterus' forces were annihilated and he limped back to Cappadocia while an epidemic broke out among Perdiccas' army. Perdiccas and Peithon (red) separated their forces, with the former standing guard in Syria against Ptolemey (yellow) and Craterus (blue), while the latter headed south. Meanwhile, Leonnatus (blue) attempted to cross the bosphorus and enter Thrace, but was blocked by Lysimachus (black). Polyperchon (black), realizing that Peithon (red) was making a grab for Philip III, crossed the Mediterranean and battled the latter, defeating him. Peithon retreated back to the Levant while Demetrius (yellow) returned from an expedition in Cyrene to snatch Philip III and take him with him. Polyperchon (black) now decided to seize Egypt for himself, causing Ptolemey (yellow) and Peithon (red), bitter enemies for the previous years, to form an alliance against him. They both rushed to Egypt, but were too late. Despite a short revolt in Greece, Lysimachus (black), who had recently married the half-sister of Alexander, Thessalonike, became the successor to Alexander's empire due to his overwhelming influence.


Himera 480 BC (C&C Ancients)

Historical Background: Phoenicia and Greece both colonized the western Mediterranean. Carthage unified the Punic cities into an empire, while Syracuse rose to become the leading Greek city under its first Tyrant, Gelon. With Theron of Akragas, Gelon took control of Himera and drove out the former ruler, Terillus, in 483. King Hamilcar of Carthage, an ally and friend of Terillus, led an army to Sicily in 480 BC to restore him to power. Hamilcar established two camps to the west and southwest of Himera. As the armies skirmished outside the city, Gelon's raiders captured a message providing the date of arrival of a body of Greek cavalry reinforcing Hamilcar's army. A treacherous plan was hatched to substitute Gelon's own cavalry for these reinforcements. At dawn on the specified day, Gelon's horsemen entered the Punic sea-camp without raising any suspicion. They suddenly attacked, raising havoc and killing Hamilcar. Meanwhile the rest of Gelon’s army launched a surprise attack against both camps. Most of the forces in the sea-camp were slaughtered but a successful counter-attack at the hill camp prevented the total destruction of the Carthaginian army. A peace treaty was signed between Syracuse and Carthage, which held for seven decades. Since Hamilcar’s expedition coincided with the Xerxes’ invasion, it was believed to be part of a coordinated assault on the Greek world.
Hamilcar is killed and most of the forces in the sea camp are defeated with minimal loss.
Meanwhile, Gelon on the left wing pushes unsupported into the main Carthaginian camp.
Gelon and his heavy troops are killed and Syracusan left wing collapses, giving hope to the Carthaginians. Unfortunately for them, a last push in the sea camp gives the victory to Syracuse. (Syracuse 6 banners; Carthage 4 banners)
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